What is the Role of Magnetic Synchronous Motor (PMSM) in Electric Cars?

What is the Role of Magnetic Synchronous Motor (PMSM) in Electric Cars? – Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is an AC synchronous motor whose excitation field is sourced from a permanent magnet. Permanent magnet synchronous motors are highly efficient, brushless, extremely fast, safe, and provide high dynamic performance. Due to their advantages, permanent synchronous motors have many applications in several fields. One of them is applied to electric cars.

Currently, almost all electric cars available use the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor type of electric motor. This is because the world’s automotive companies assess, this electric motor has characteristics that are suitable and feasible for electric cars.

Read more: Wuling Air EV; Efficient, Sophisticated, and Strong Battery

The Role of Magnetic Synchronous Motor (PMSM) in Electric Cars

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is brushless and has very high reliability and efficiency. Due to its permanent magnet rotor, it also has high torque with a small frame size and no rotor current. Instead of using copper windings on the rotor, this electric motor has a permanent magnet to create a rotating magnetic field. Since there is no DC source supply, this type of motor is very simple and costs less.

The Role of Magnetic Synchronous Motor
The Role of Magnetic Synchronous Motor is a type of electric motor that has many advantages. Although there are clear drawbacks. However, if we compare the advantages and disadvantages, the advantages are much greater. This is the basis why manufacturers use this type of motor more than others.

A permanent magnet synchronous motor is an AC synchronous motor whose field excitation is provided by a permanent magnet and has a sinusoidal reverse EMF waveform. Permanent magnets allow PMSM to generate torque at zero speed. This motor provides high efficiency operation. However, this motor requires a digitally controlled inverter.

Construction of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Permanent magnet synchronous motors, like rotating electric motors, consist of a rotor and a stator. The construction of a permanent magnet synchronous motor is similar to that of a basic synchronous motor, but the only difference is in the rotor. In this type of motor, permanent magnets are attached to the rotor and the rotor does not have a magnetic field winding.

Read more: EV Electric Motor Efficiency

The Role of Magnetic Synchronous Motor
Actually, this type of electric motor has the same principle as other types of electric motors. If the other types of motors have a stator and a rotor, so is this type of motor.

The function of the permanent magnet in this motor is to create a magnetic field pole. The permanent magnets in the motor are made of samarium cobalt and medium, iron, and boron. The choice of these materials because they have a higher permeability. Meanwhile, the most abundant permanent magnet material is neodymium-boron-iron. This material is almost in electric motors of this type today. This is because of its cost-effectiveness and ease of availability.

Character of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

The following are some of the characteristics of a permanent magnet synchronous motor.

  • No sparks, safer in explosive environments
  • Clean, fast and efficient
  • More compact, efficient and lighter than ACIM
  • Designed for high performance servo applications
  • Runs with/without position encoder
  • Low noise and EMI
  • Smooth low and high speed performance
  • Delivers optimal torque when combined with Field-Oriented Control (FOC).

Type of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Depending on how the magnets are attached to the rotor and the rotor design, permanent magnet synchronous motors can be classified into two types;

  • Surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM).
  • Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM).

SPMSM mounts all magnetic pieces on the surface, and IPMSM places magnets inside the rotor. Also, depending on the stator design, permanent magnet synchronous motors can;

  • With distributed winding.
  • With concentrated winding.

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Control

Since permanent magnet synchronous motors must be driven with a sinusoidal waveform, the control complexity increases. Permanent magnet synchronous motors require a control system, for example, variable frequency drive or servo drive.

The Role of Magnetic Synchronous Motor

There are a large number of control techniques applied to control systems. The choice of the optimal control method mainly depends on the task placed before the electric drive. To solve simple tasks usually used trapezoidal control with Hall sensors. To solve problems requiring maximum performance from an electric drive, field-oriented control is usually chosen.

Read more: Maximum Acceleration of EV Electric Motors

Do Synchronous Motors Have Permanent Magnets?

Permanent magnets housed in a steel rotor provide a continuous magnetic field in a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The rotating magnetic field is created by the windings coupled to an AC source in the stator (as in asynchronous motors).

Advantages and Disadvantages of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

As good as technology is, nothing is perfect. There are still gaps in the weaknesses above the advantages he has. Therefore, there must be advantages and disadvantages including this type of electric motor.

Advantages of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

The advantages of permanent magnet synchronous motors include;

  1. Dynamic performance in high and low speed operation.
  2. High power density.
  3. Low rotor inertia makes it easy to control.
  4. No torque ripple when motor is commuted.
  5. High torque and smooth.
  6. High efficiency at high speed.
  7. Resistant to wear.
  8. Available in small sizes with different packages.
  9. Easy maintenance and installation.
  10. Able to maintain full torque at low speed.
  11. High reliability.
  12. Efficient heat dissipation.
  13. Less noisy

Loss of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

The disadvantages of permanent magnet synchronous motors are:

  1. High manufacturing cost.
  2. The price is expensive.
  3. It is difficult to start the first lap, this is because it is not the type of bike that can start on its own.

Application of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Use

Permanent magnet synchronous motors are widely applied to electronic equipment equipped with electric motors. However, in the automotive sector, this motor is used as a driving motor for the steering wheel or electronic power steering (EPS).

Whereas in electric cars, a permanent magnet type motor is used as the main component of the wheel drive.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.